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January 26, 2022
OECD releases eighth batch of Stage 2 peer review reports on dispute resolution
On 24 January 2022, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) released the eighth batch of Stage 2 peer review reports relating to the outcome of the peer monitoring of the implementation by Brunei Darussalam, Curaçao, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, Monaco, San Marino, and Serbia (the assessed jurisdictions) of the Base Erosion and Profit Shifting (BEPS) minimum standard on dispute resolution under Action 14 of the BEPS project.
The Stage 2 reports include four main sections: (i) preventing disputes; (ii) availability and access to MAP; (iii) resolution of MAP cases; and (iv) implementation of MAP agreements. They cover any relevant developments from the assessed jurisdictions between 1 April 2019 and 31 December 2020. In addition, jurisdictions can request feedback on their adoption of the best practices. Guernsey and the Isle of Man made such a request and therefore the OECD also released accompanying best practices reports for each of those jurisdictions.
The Stage 2 reports focus on evaluating the progress made by the assessed jurisdictions in addressing any of the recommendations that resulted from the Stage 1 peer review reports that were released on 24 February 2020.1 The outcomes of this batch of Stage 2 peer review reports generally demonstrate positive changes across the assessed jurisdictions. According to the peer review reports, Curaçao, Guernsey, Jersey, Monaco, San Marino, and Serbia have addressed either all or most of the deficiencies identified in the Stage 1 peer review. In addition, Brunei Darussalam and the Isle of Man addressed some of the identified deficiencies. The assessed jurisdictions have committed to continue working to resolve the remaining deficiencies identified during the peer review process.
In October 2015, the OECD released the final reports on all 15 Action areas of the BEPS project. The recommendations made in the reports ranged from new minimum standards to reinforced international standards, common approaches to facilitate the convergence of national practices, and guidance drawing on best practices.
Minimum standards are the BEPS recommendations that all countries participating in the Inclusive Framework on BEPS have committed to implement. Minimum standards were provided for under Action 5 on harmful tax practices, Action 6 on treaty abuse, Action 13 on transfer pricing documentation and country-by-country reporting and Action 14 on dispute resolution.
The minimum standards are all subject to peer review processes. The mechanics of the peer review process were not specified in the final reports on these Actions. Instead, the OECD indicated at the time of the release of the BEPS final reports that it would, at a later stage, issue peer review documents on these Actions providing the terms of reference and the methodology by which the peer reviews would be conducted.
In October 2016, the OECD released the peer review documents (i.e., the Terms of Reference and Assessment Methodology) on Action 14 on dispute resolution. The Terms of Reference translated the minimum standard for dispute resolution into 21 elements and the best practices into 12 items. The Assessment Methodology provided procedures for undertaking peer review and monitoring in two stages. Both stages are coordinated by the Secretariat of the OECD Forum on Tax Administration’s (FTA) Forum on Mutual Agreement Procedures (MAP). In Stage 1, a review is conducted of how a jurisdiction implements the minimum standard based on its legal framework for MAP and how it applies the framework in practice.
In Stage 2, a review is conducted of the measures the jurisdiction has taken to address any shortcomings identified in Stage 1 of the peer review. Within one year of the adoption of its Stage 1 peer review report by the OECD’s Committee on Fiscal Affairs, an assessed jurisdiction should submit a detailed written report to the FTA MAP Forum on: (i) the steps it has taken or is taking to address any shortcomings identified in its peer review report; and (ii) any plans or changes to its legislative or procedural framework relating to the implementation of the minimum standard.
Following the release of the peer review documents, on 31 October 2016, the OECD released an assessment schedule covering the peer review process on dispute resolution under Action 14 where it grouped the assessed jurisdictions into 10 batches for review. The peer reviews for some jurisdictions were deferred until 2020.2 On 24 February 2020, the OECD released the Stage 1 peer review reports covering the implementation by the eighth batch of jurisdictions of the BEPS minimum standard on dispute resolution.
Prior to this current release, the OECD had released 82 Stage 1 peer review reports which cover the first 10 batches of jurisdictions3 and 52 Stage 2 peer review reports.4
Eighth batch of Stage 2 peer review reports
On 24 January 2022, the OECD released the Stage 2 peer review reports on the eighth batch of jurisdictions of the BEPS minimum standard on dispute resolution. The Stage 2 reports follow the same structure as the Stage 1 reports, with four main sections: (i) preventing disputes; (ii) availability and access to MAP; (iii) resolution of MAP cases; and (iv) implementation of MAP agreements. In addition, the reports take into account any relevant developments from each jurisdiction between 1 April 2019 (i.e., from the month following the launch date of the Stage 1 review of the assessed jurisdictions) and 31 December 2020 (i.e., until the month of the launch of the Stage 2 review of the assessed jurisdictions), including developments relating to the tax treaty network of that jurisdiction and other developments regarding the minimum standard on dispute resolution. Further, the reports build on the MAP statistics for the years 2016 through 2020 (the Statistics Reporting Period). The peer review reports were approved by the Inclusive Framework on BEPS on 19 November 2021.
In general, the progress of the assessed jurisdictions on addressing deficiencies identified in the Stage 1 reports has been scored as satisfactory in their respective reports, although not all show the same level of progress. According to the peer reviews, Curaçao, Guernsey, Jersey, Monaco, San Marino, and Serbia have addressed most of the deficiencies identified in the Stage 1 peer review. Brunei Darussalam and the Isle of Man addressed some of the identified deficiencies.
Prevention of disputes
Curaçao meets the Action 14 minimum standard with respect to the prevention of disputes, and when disputes occur, they provide access to MAP in all eligible cases. As the rest of the assessed jurisdictions have no bilateral APA program in place, there are no further elements to assess regarding the prevention of disputes.
Availability and access to MAP
All of the assessed jurisdictions have issued clear and comprehensive guidance on the MAP availability and how it applies in practice.
Resolution of MAP cases
Regarding the average timeframe to resolve MAP cases during the Statistics Reporting Period, Curaçao, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey and Serbia closed MAP cases within the average time of 24 months, which is considered as the appropriate time period to resolve a MAP under Action 14. The remaining jurisdictions had no MAP experience.
Additionally, on the evolution of the MAP caseload over 2016 to 2020, the caseload increased in Curaçao, Guernsey, Isle of Man, Jersey, and Serbia. For Brunei Darussalam, Monaco, and San Marino, there was no increase or decrease of the MAP caseload because these jurisdictions have not been involved in any MAP cases during the Statistics Reporting Period.
All tax treaties of Curaçao, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, San Marino, and Serbia contain a provision relating to MAP, and most of the tax treaties of Brunei Darussalam, Jersey, and Monaco, include a MAP provision. According to the peer review reports, the multilateral instrument (MLI) developed under BEPS Action 155 was utilized by all of these jurisdictions, except Brunei Durassalam which has not signed the MLI, to bring most of their tax treaties in line with the minimum standard. Where treaties will not be modified upon entry into force and entry into effect of the MLI, all of the assessed jurisdictions reported that they intend to update all of their tax treaties to be compliant with the requirements under the Action 14 minimum standard through bilateral negotiations.
Implementation of MAP agreements
Brunei Darussalam, Curaçao, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, Monaco, and San Marino meet the Action 14 minimum standard with respect to the implementation of MAP agreements. Jersey and Serbia monitor the implementation of MAP agreements. However, they have a domestic statute of limitations under which there is a risk that MAP agreements cannot be implemented whether or not the applicable tax treaty contains the equivalent of Article 25(2), second sentence, of the 2017 OECD Model Tax Convention.
Best practice peer review reports
In addition to the review of the minimum standard on dispute resolution, each assessed jurisdiction can provide information and request feedback from peers on how it has adopted the 12 best practices on dispute resolution.
Guernsey and the Isle of Man requested feedback concerning their adoption of the best practices and therefore, in addition to the peer review reports, the OECD has released accompanying best practices reports for these jurisdictions.
The best practice reports are divided into the same four parts as the peer review reports on the minimum standard. Under each of these sections, the 12 best practices on MAP are addressed and if peers provided input with respect to a particular best practice, the input is reflected in the report. However, for most of the best practices, the peers provided only limited input.
The OECD will continue to publish Stage 2 peer review reports in accordance with the Action 14 peer review assessment schedule, with the ninth batch of Stage 2 peer reviews expected to be released in a few months.6 The assessed jurisdictions will continue to work to solve the remaining deficiencies identified during the peer review process.
The OECD had planned to review the Action 14 peer review assessment methodology by 2020 based on the experience in conducting peer monitoring and recognizing the need for an assessment methodology that effectively improves the shortcomings identified in the peer review reports with the aim of ensuring an effective MAP. Although this timeframe was not met, in November 2020, the OECD released a consultation document to get input on additional elements to strengthen the Action 14 minimum standard and the MAP Statistics Reporting Framework. Following the input received, the OECD held a public consultation on the review of the minimum standard on dispute resolution under BEPS Action 14 in February 2021.7 At this time, it is not clear when revised materials on Action 14 will be released.
In a post-BEPS world, where multinational enterprises (MNEs) face significant scrutiny from tax authorities and the number of MAP cases continues to increase, the release of the peer review reports reflects the continued recognition of the importance to MNEs of tax certainty with respect to their cross-border transactions. While increased scrutiny and greater subjectivity increases the risk of double taxation, the continued focus by the OECD and participating jurisdictions on the implementation of effective dispute resolution mechanisms can be seen as a positive in helping to improve access to an effective and timely MAP process. Further, the peer review process contributes to the ongoing monitoring of jurisdictions’ capacity to resolve disputes timely.
The peer review reports also provide insights on the availability and effectiveness of MAP in the assessed jurisdictions that may be useful to taxpayers. As additional jurisdictions continue to be reviewed, the OECD has made clear that taxpayer input is welcome on an ongoing basis.
Assessed jurisdictions have committed to continue working to solve the deficiencies identified during the peer review process and make the relevant changes to their tax treaties and MAP process. Companies should monitor the peer review results and assess the potential implications in jurisdictions that are relevant to them.
For additional information with respect to this Alert, please contact the following:
Ernst & Young Belastingadviseurs LLP, Rotterdam
Ernst & Young Belastingadviseurs LLP, Amsterdam
Ernst & Young Limited (New Zealand), Auckland
Ernst & Young Solutions LLP, Singapore
Ernst & Young LLP (United Kingdom), Global Tax Desk Network, London
Ernst & Young LLP (United States), Global Tax Desk Network, New York
Ernst & Young LLP (United States), Washington, DC